Resources For Researchers – Measures Library

Acculturation

Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AMAS)

Validation Population:  Latino/Latina/Latinx people living in the United States but born elsewhere
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .90-.97
Citation(s):  Zea MC, Asner-Self KK, Birman D, Buki LP. The Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale: empirical validation with two Latino/Latina samples. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2003;9:107–26.

Childhood home environment

Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME)

Validation Population: The adapted, retrospective version assesses the childhood home environment and exposure to books, music, musuems, etc.
Psychometrics:  Not available
Citation(s):  Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (2003). Home observation for measurement of the environment: Administration manual. Tempe, AZ: Family & Human Dynamics Research Institute, Arizona State University.

Childhood socioeconomic status

Childhood Financial Circumstances

Validation Population: Young Adults (25-36)
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α=0.81
Citation(s):  Lawson, G. M., Camins, J. S., Wisse, L., Wu, J., Duda, J. T., Cook, P. A., … & Farah, M. J. (2017). Childhood socioeconomic status and childhood maltreatment: Distinct associations with brain structure. PloS one, 12(4), e0175690.

Childhood trauma exposure

Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE)

Validation Population:  Adults between 18-25 years of age
Psychometrics:  Displayed strong test-retest reliability (0.88–0.91) over a six-month period 
Citation(s):  Teicher, M. H., & Parigger, A. (2015). The ‘Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure’(MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development. PLoS one, 10(2), e0117423.

Exposure to stress and adversity

Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN)

Validation Population:  Adolescents; Adults
Psychometrics:  Not available but demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (0.90–0.92), as well as strong concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity across a variety of clinical measures
Citation(s):  https://www.uclastresslab.org/projects/strain-stress-and-adversity-inventory/ 

Slavich, G. M., & Shields, G. S. (2018). Assessing lifetime stress exposure using the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adults (Adult STRAIN): An overview and initial validation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 17-27.

Slavich, G. M., Stewart, J. G., Esposito, E. C., Shields, G. S., & Auerbach, R. P. (2019). The Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adolescents (Adolescent STRAIN): associations with mental and physical health, risky behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses in youth seeking treatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60, 998-1009.

Gender minority stress and resilience

Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure (Adult Version)

Validation Population:  Gender Minority Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = 0.91
Citation(s):  Testa, R. J., Habarth, J., Peta, J., Balsam, K., & Bockting, W. (2015). Development of the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(1), 65.

Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure (Adolescent Version)

Validation Population:  Gender Minority Adolescents (12-18 years)
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = 0.8-0.95
Citation(s):  Hidalgo, M.A., Petras, H., Chen, D. and Chodzen, G., 2019. The Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure: Psychometric validity of an adolescent extension. Clinical practice in pediatric psychology, 7(3), p.278.

Transgender Family Acceptance To Empowerment (TransFATE) Scale

Validation Population:  Parents and caregivers of gender diverse youth (GDY)
Psychometrics: Cronbach’s α=.86
Citation(s):  Kidd KM, Hill A, Sequeira GM, McMillan C, Switzer G, Rofey D, Miller E, Montano GT. Development and Psychometric Analysis of the Transgender Family Acceptance To Empowerment (TransFATE) Scale. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2021 Jun 1;68(6):1096-103.

Transgender Congruence Scale

Validation Population: Transgender adults
Psychometrics:  Appearance Congruence items: Cronbach’s α=.94; Gender Identity Acceptance items: Cronbach’s α=.79
Citation(s):  Kozee HB, Tylka TL, Bauerband LA. Measuring transgender individuals’ comfort with gender identity and appearance: Development and validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 2012 Jun;36(2):179-96.

Heteronormative attitudes and beliefs

Adults

Validation Population:   Adults
Psychometrics: Cronbach’s α=.78 normative behavior items, .92 (essential sex and gender items)
Citation(s):  Habarth JM. Development of the heteronormative attitudes and beliefs scale. Psychology & Sexuality. 2015 Apr 3;6(2):166-88.

Internalized racism

Internalized Racial Oppression Scale for Black Individuals

Validation Population:  African American/Black Adults
Psychometrics:The study lists that the alpha coefficients were below the acceptable range as a limitation. However, the development of the scale was validated through an intensive review by six national experts in multicultural psychology.
Citation(s):  Bailey T-KM, Chung YB, Williams WS, Singh AA, Terrell HK. Development and validation of the Internalized Racial Oppression Scale for Black individuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2011;58(4):481. doi:10.1037/a0023585

Neighborhood deprivation

Neighborhood Deprivation Index

Validation Population:  Participants in the Year 2000 U.S. Census in 19 cities and five suburban counties (all located within four states)
Psychometrics:  Principal component analysis revealed that the neighborhood deprivation principal component was consistent both within and across expected socio-demographic domains (0.2-0.4)
Citation(s):  Messer, L. C., Laraia, B. A., Kaufman, J. S., Eyster, J., Holzman, C., Culhane, J., … & O’campo, P. (2006). The development of a standardized neighborhood deprivation index. Journal of Urban Health, 83(6), 1041-1062.

Neighborhood disadvantage

Area Deprivation Index

Validation Population:  People living in the United States and Puerto Rico
Psychometrics:  Not available
Citation(s):  https://www.neighborhoodatlas.medicine.wisc.edu/

Kind AJH, Buckingham W. Making Neighborhood Disadvantage Metrics Accessible: The Neighborhood Atlas. New England Journal of Medicine, 2018. 378: 2456-2458. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1802313. PMCID: PMC6051533.

Perceived social support

The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support

Validation Population:  Adolescents; Adults; International Translations
Psychometrics:  Not available
Citation(s):  Zimet, G.D., Dahlem, N.W., Zimet, S.G. & Farley, G.K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30-41.

Dambi, J.M., Corten, L., Chiwaridzo, M., Jack, H., Mlambo, T. and Jelsma, J., 2018. A systematic review of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translations and adaptations of the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale (MSPSS). Health and quality of life outcomes, 16(1), pp.1-19.

Perceived socioeconomic position

MacArthur Scales of Subjective Social Status

Validation Population:  People living in the United States and Puerto Rico
Psychometrics:  Not available
Citation(s):  https://macses.ucsf.edu/research/psychosocial/commladder.php

https://macses.ucsf.edu/research/psychosocial/usladder.php

Racial discrimination

Everyday Discrimination Scale

Validation Population:   Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = 0.74 or greater
Citation(s):  Krieger N., Smith K., Naishadham D., Hartman C., Barbeau E.M. “Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.” Social Science & Medicine. 2005; 61(7):1576-159

Taylor T.R., Kamarck T.W., Shiffman S. “Validation of the Detroit area study discrimination scale in a community sample of older African American adults: the Pittsburgh healthy heart project.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2004; 11:88–94.

Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. 1997; 2(3):335-351.

Everyday Discrimination Scale, Short Version

Validation Population:   Adults; African Americans
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .77
Citation(s):  https://scholar.harvard.edu/davidrwilliams/node/32397

Sternthal, M. J., Slopen, N., & Williams, D. R. (2011). Racial disparities in health. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 8(01), 95–113. doi:10.1017/S1742058X11000087

Racism and Life Experiences Scales

Validation Population:  African American/Black Adolescents; African American/Black Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .72-.94
Citation(s):  Harrell, S. P., Merchant, M. A., & Young, S. A. (1997). Psychometric properties of the racism and life experiences scales (RaLES). Unpublished manuscript.

Seaton, E. K., Yip, T., & Sellers, R. M. (2009). A longitudinal examination of racial identity and racial discrimination among African American adolescents. Child development, 80(2), 406-417.

Way Perceived Discrimination

Validation Population:  African American/Black, Latino/Latina/Latinx, and Asian American adolescents
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .91-.93
Citation(s):   Greene, M. L., Way, N., & Pahl, K. (2006). Trajectories of perceived adult and peer discrimination among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents: patterns and psychological correlates. Developmental psychology, 42(2), 218.

Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity among urban Black and Latino adolescents. Child development, 77(5), 1403-1415.

Rivas‐Drake, D., Hughes, D., & Way, N. (2009). A preliminary analysis of associations among ethnic–racial socialization, ethnic discrimination, and ethnic identity among urban sixth graders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(3), 558-584

The Revised 28-Item Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (R28REMS)

Validation Population:  Young Adults (18-35) identifying as Black, Latino/Hispanic, and/or Asian
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α ≥0.75 for all six subscales; Cronbach’s α ≥0.88 for each racial group
Citation(s):  Forrest-Bank S, Jenson JM, Trecartin S. The Revised 28-Item Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (R28REMS): Examining the Factorial Structure for Black, Latino/Hispanic, and Asian Young Adults. Journal of Social Service Research. 2015;41(3):326-344. doi:10.1080/01488376.2014.987944

Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS)

Validation Population:  African American/Black Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α=.87 for Component 1, Cultural Racism; Cronbach’s α=.85 for Component 2, Institutional Racism; Cronbach’s α= .84 for Component 3, Individual Racism; Cronbach’s α=.79 for Component 4, Collective Racism
Citation(s):  Utsey SO, Ponterotto JG. Development and validation of the Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS). Journal of Counseling Psychology. 1996;43(4):490.

Racial identity

Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity

Validation Population:  African American/Black Adolescents; African American/Black Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .67-.80
Citation(s):   Rowley, S. J., Sellers, R. M., Chavous, T. M., & Smith, M. A. (1998). The relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students. Journal of personality and social psychology, 74(3), 715.

Sellers, R. M., Chavous, T. M., & Cooke, D. Y. (1998). Racial ideology and racial centrality as predictors of African American college students’ academic performance. Journal of Black Psychology, 24(1), 8-27.

Scottham, K. M., Sellers, R. M., & Nguyên, H. X. (2008). A measure of racial identity in African American adolescents: The development of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity–Teen. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(4), 297.

Racial socialization

Racial Socialization Competency Scale

Validation Population:  African American/Black Parents
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .87-.97
Citation(s):  Anderson, R. E., Jones, S. C., & Stevenson, H. C. (2020). The initial development and validation of the Racial Socialization Competency Scale: Quality and quantity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 26(4), 426.

Racial stress and trauma

Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale

Validation Population:  African American/Black Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .94
Citation(s):  Williams, M. T., Printz, D., & DeLapp, R. C. (2018). Assessing racial trauma with the Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale. Psychology of violence, 8(6), 735.

Carter-Vinson Race-Based Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale

Validation Population:  African American/Black Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = .77-.85
Citation(s):  Carter, R. T., Muchow, C., & Pieterse, A. L. (2018). Construct, predictive validity, and measurement equivalence of the Race-Based Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale for Black Americans. Traumatology, 24(1), 8.

Carter, R. T., & Pieterse, A. L. (2020). Measuring the effects of racism. Columbia University Press.

Uconn Racial/Ethnic Stress & Trauma Survey

Validation Population:  Racially Marginalized Adults
Psychometrics:  None listed, but three case studies (one Black woman, one Black man, one Hispanic woman) where the survey was used demonstrated strong validity due to its thorough assessment in unpacking racial stress and trauma.
Citation(s):  Williams MT, Metzger IW, Leins C, DeLapp C. Assessing racial trauma within a DSM–5 framework: The UConn Racial/Ethnic Stress & Trauma Survey. Practice Innovations. 2018;3(4):242. doi:10.1037/pri0000076

Religious Involvement

Religious Commitment Inventory

Validation Population:   Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α ≥0.83 across independent validation samples
Citation(s):  Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., Schmitt, M. M., Berry, J. T., Bursley, K. H., & O’Conner, L. (2003). The religious commitment inventory-10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 84-96.

Schemas of intimacy

The Silencing the Self Scale (STSS)

Validation Population:  Women
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = 0.74-0.89 for 3 of 4 subscales for women
Care as Self Sacrifice subscale: Cronbach’s α = 0.67 for women
Citation(s):  Jack DC. Silencing the self: Women and depression. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (1991).

Jack DC, Dill D. The silencing the self scale: schemas of intimacy associated with depression in women. Psychol. Women Q. 16:97–106 (1992).

Remen, A. L., Chambless, D. L., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2002). Gender differences in the construct validity of the Silencing the Self Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 151–159. doi:10.1111/1471-6402.00053

Smolak, L. and Munstertieger, F. The Relationship of Gender and Voice to Depression and Eating Disorders. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 2002; 26: 234-241

Sexual minority stress

Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory

Validation Population:  Sexual Minority Adolescents (14-18 years)
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α =0.75-0.96
Citation(s):  Schrager, S.M., Goldbach, J.T. and Mamey, M.R., 2018. Development of the sexual minority adolescent stress inventory. Frontiers in psychology, 9, p.319.

Sexual minority stress and resilience

Parental Acceptance and Rejection of Sexual Orientation Scale (PARSOS)

Validation Population:  Sexual Minority Transitional Age Adults 
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α=0.82
Citation(s):  Kibrik, E.L., Cohen, N., Stolowicz-Melman, D., Levy, A., Boruchovitz-Zamir, R. and Diamond, G.M., 2018. Measuring adult children’s perceptions of their parents’ acceptance and rejection of their sexual orientation: Initial development of the parental acceptance and rejection of sexual orientation scale (PARSOS). Journal of homosexuality.

Socioeconomic status

SES Ladder

Validation Population:   Adults
Psychometrics:  Not available
Citation(s):  Cohen S, Schwartz JE, Epel E, Kirschbaum C, Sidney S, Seeman T. Socioeconomic status, race, and diurnal cortisol decline in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)
Study. Psychosom Med. 2006;68(1): 41-50.

Colhoun HM, Rubens MB, Underwood SR, Fuller JH. Cross sectional study of differences in coronary artery calcification by socioeconomic status. BMJ. 2000;321(7271):1262-1263.

Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Tyroler HA, Crum LD, Szklo M. Social inequalities and atherosclerosis: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141(10):960-972.

McEwen BS, Seeman T. Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. In: Adler N, Marmot M, McEwen B, Stewart J(eds.). Socioeconomic Status and Health in Industrial Nations: Social, Psychological and Biological Pathways: New York Academy of Sciences. (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896); 1999.
p. 30-47.

Seeman TE, Crimmins E, Huang MH, Singer B, Bucur A, Gruenewald T, et al. Cumulative biological risk and socio-economic differences in mortality: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58(10):1985-1997

Trauma exposure

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)

Validation Population:  Adolescents; Adults
Psychometrics:  Cronbach’s α = 0.74–0.95 across subscales; Also has strong test-retest reliability (0.79–0.86) and convergent validity with clinical interview
Citation(s):  Scher CD, Stein MB, Asmundson GJ, McCreary DR, Forde DR. The childhood trauma questionnaire in a community sample: psychometric properties and normative data. J Trauma Stress. 2001;14:843–857.

Bernstein DP, Fink L, Handelsman L, et al. Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1132–1136.

Walker EA, Gelfand A, Katon WJ, et al. Adult health status of women with histories of childhood abuse and neglect. Am J Med. 1999;107:332–339.

Bernstein DP, Ahluvalia T, Pogge D, Handelsman L. Validity of the childhood trauma questionnaire in an adolescent psychiatric population. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1997;36:340–348.

NHS II Life Experiences (derived from the Brief Trauma Interview)

Validation Population:  Mid-life women
Psychometrics:  Interrater reliability kappa coefficients for the presence of trauma that met Criterion A1 for trauma exposure according to the DSM-IV were above .70 (range .74–1.00) for all events except illness (.60)
Citation(s):  Engelhard IM, Hout Marcel A. van den, Kindt M The relationship between neuroticism, pre-traumatic stress, and post-traumatic stress: a prospective study. Pers. Individ. Diff. 35:2, 381-388 (2003).

Hillary JM, Ronnie J. Positive and Negative Self-Complexity: Patterns of Adjustment Following Traumatic Versus Non-Traumatic Life Experiences. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 13:63-85 (1994).

Koenen KC, De Vivo I, Rich-Edwards J, Smoller JW, Wright RJ, Purcell SM. Protocol for investigating genetic determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder in women from the Nurses’ Health Study II. BMC Psychiatry 9:29 (2009).

Lee SS, Waters C. Impact of stressful life experiences and of spiritual well-being on trauma symptoms. J. Prev. Inter. Community 26:39-47 (2003).

Plumb JC, Orsillo SM, Luterek JA. A preliminary test of the role of experiential avoidance in post-event functioning. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 35:245–257 (2004).

Schnurr PP, Spiro AI, Vielhauer MJ, Findler MN, Hamblen JL: Trauma in the lives of older men: Findings from the Normative Aging Study. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology. 2002, 8: 175-187. 10.1023/A:1015992110544.

Schnurr PP, Lunney CA, Sengupta A, Spiro A: A longitudinal study of retirement in older male veterans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 73 (3): 561-566. 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.561.

Trauma exposure (discretely assesses exposure during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood)

Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ)

Validation Population:  Not available
Psychometrics:  Not available
Citation(s):  Adapted by Salvator Insana, PhD and included in Stamm, B. (1996). Measurement of stress, trauma, and adaptation. The Sidran Press.

Youth bias victimization exposure

Youth Bias Victimization Questionnaire

Validation Population:  Youth ages 11-21
Psychometrics:  Not available but some of the questions come from other assessments that demonstrate good validity including the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.80)
Citation(s):  https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/253435.pdf

Finkelhor, D., Hamby, S.L., Ormrod, R.K., and Turner, H.A. (2005). The JVQ: Reliability, validity, and national norms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 383-412.

Jones L.M., Turner, H.A., Mitchell K.J., Hamby, S., Cuevas, C., Farrell, A. A Comprehensive Measure of Youth Experiences with Bias Victimization: Findings from the Youth Bias Victimization Questionnaire (YBVQ). October 2019.